Aviva International Insurance Ltd

Aviva International Insurance was established under a deed of settlement on 28 September 1861 as the Commercial Union Assurance Company. It was registered under the same name on 28 October 1862 and was incorporated on 8 August 1885. The company became Aviva International Insurance Ltd on 1 September 2006.

Company history

CU San Francisco

Commercial Union Assurance Company San Francisco policy header, 1880

Cutitanic slip

Titanic slip

CU poster

Commercial Union Assurance Company poster, 1864

CU road rail

Commercial Union Assurance Company road and rail accident proposal

CU credit

Commercial Union Assurance Company advertisement, 1985

CU Exeter

Commercial Union Assurance Company advertisement for nerve-centre in Exeter

CU Exeter computer

Computer at Exeter nerve-centre, 1960s

CU Helens building

Construction of Head Office at St. Helen's, London, 1964

Insurance head office

Commercial Union Assurance Company Head Office, St. Helen's, London, 1973

Insurance head office magazine

Commercial Union Assurance Company staff magazine showing Head Office at St. Helen's

CU poster Exeter

Commercial Union Assurance Company poster

The company was established in response to premium increases following the great Tooley Street fire of June 1861. Provisionally called the Commercial Union Fire Insurance Company, the company established temporary offices at 34 Gracechurch Street in London and experienced its first major loss under a policy taken out by George Dowlers, a Birmingham brass founder, in 1862.

Although established to transact fire business, the company added life assurance in 1862 (when it also began to offer fire insurance overseas) and marine in 1863. In 1900, the company expanded its business to include burglary and accident insurance followed by plate glass insurance in 1901 and trustee and executor business by 1905.

Over the last quarter of a century the company has undergone a number of changes. On 4 January 1982, it was renamed the Commercial Union Assurance Company plc and its holding company, Commercial Union plc announced a merger with the General Accident plc on 25 February 1998.

On 1 October 1999, the company's name changed to CGU International Insurance plc, a subsidiary of the new holding company CGU plc. On February 21 2000, CGU announced a merger with Norwich Union plc to form CGNU plc, which was re-branded in July 2002 as Aviva plc. Finally, on September 1 2006, CGU International Insurance changed its name to Aviva International Insurance.

Key dates

Year Event
1861 The company is established
1885 The company is incorporated
1998 Holding companies Commercial Union plc and General Accident plc merge
1999 Name changes to CGU International Insurance
2000 CGU announces a merger with Norwich Union to form CGNU
2002 CGNU is re-branded as Aviva
2006 Name changes to Aviva International Insurance

Did you know...?

  • In 1862, the company allowed its clerks time off to visit the Great London Exposition.
  • The company was underwriting the SS Peterhoff when it was seized in 1863 during the American Civil War by the SS Vanderbilt, under the express orders of the Unionist Admiral Charles Wilkes.
  • In June 1893, the board approved expenditure of £100 to illuminate both its head office and West End offices for the royal wedding of George Duke of York (later George V) to Mary of Teck.
  • Following the San Francisco earthquake in 1906, the first cable message to the company from its assistant manager Mr Neibling, received on 20 April, read,

    "Heavy earthquake. Office intact. Now fires. General brigade crippled. Report later".
    A second received two days later continued,

    "Fire still raging. Everything except extreme western addition doomed. Will cable liability earliest moment".
    The company paid out $434,432 (roughly £800,000), a figure equal to 34% of the fire premium income for the year.
  • On 15 April 1912, the Titanic hit an iceberg on her maiden voyage to New York and sank with the loss of 825 passengers and 673 crew. The owners had retained so much confidence in the ship's design and its "indestructible" watertight bulk heads that they had not insured the ship for her full value, an estimated £1,750,000. Even so, insurance companies incurred a collective loss of around £1,000,000 -

    "the heaviest individual loss that has ever befallen underwriters",
    according to the Times. Commercial Union's share of the claim amounted to £145,723 of which £60,723 was for losses to registered mail posted from London, Hamburg and Paris.
  • In 1914, the company paid out on share certificates and silver lost in the Empress of Ireland disaster of 29 August. Having left Quebec along the St Laurence seaway, the vessel collided with the 6,000-ton Norwegian collier Storstad in heavy fog and sank in less than 15 minutes with the loss of 1,012 lives.
  • In 1929, company manager at Harbin, China, Mr I H C Godfrey, was captured by bandits while on a tour of inspection and was only released after a ransom of $150,000 was paid.
  • On 14 October 1946, the board authorised expenditure of £6,000 to install fluorescent lighting at the company's head office.
  • In the early 1950s, actors Leonard Rossiter and Michael Williams both worked for Commercial Union.
  • In 1956, the company was involved in the loss of the Andrea Doria, an Italian passenger vessel that collided with the Stockholm, a Swedish carrier, 60 miles outside Nantucket. The ship sustained a gash on her starboard side twenty metres wide penetrating to one-third the width of the vessel. She sank within ten hours in 225 meters of water with the loss of 47 of her 1,334 passengers.
  • On 8 August 1963, a mail train from Glasgow was stopped by a signal between Leighton Buzzard and Cheddington in Buckinghamshire and £2,595,291 in used notes was stolen from the train. The heist became known as the Great Train Robbery and cost the company a total of £1,091,340 10s 0d.
  • At the 1960 Rome Olympics, company employee Don Thompson won gold and set a new Olympic record in the marathon walk. Thompson, who was described as

    "a frail bespectacled insurance clerk"
    , was dubbed El Topolino, or Mighty Mouse, and reportedly prepared for his Olympic exploits by walking up and down in his bathroom.
  • The company became involved in the tennis grand prix in 1972, sponsoring the CU Masters. It was also the first company to have a hospitality marquee on the lawn at Wimbledon.
  • In 1977, the company insured the life of Elton Hercules John, composer, entertainer and recording artist.
  • During the 1970s, the company insured the Sydney Opera House, the Welsh Ruby Union, Concorde, the Queen Elizabeth II and the CN Tower in Toronto while it was under construction.
  • The company's head office at St Helen's, London, currently the Aviva head office, was badly damaged by an IRA bomb on April 10 1992. This was not the first time the company had been forced to move staff out and repair a building. In 1927, its head offices in Cornhill collapsed as a result of building work carried out by its neighbour, Lloyds Bank.

Subsidiaries (to 1985) and constituents*

Year Company name
1873 - 1880 Archangel Marine Insurance Company
1851 - 1881 New South Wales Marine Insurance Company
1855 - 1881 Sydney Insurance Company
1884 - 1889 Nottinghamshire and Midland Fire Insurance Company Ltd
1869 - 1890 Mercantile Marine and Fire Insurance Company of South Australia
1890 Commercial Union Fire Insurance Company of New York
- 1890 Colonial Fire and Marine Insurance Company of Wellington
1891 Commercial Union Marine Insurance Company of New York
- 1891 Marine Insurance Company of Western Australia
- 1892 Western Australian Fire Insurance Company
- 1892 National Insurance Company of New York
- 1892 Mutual Marine Insurance Company of Tasmania (direct business in Tasmania)
1886 - 1894 Economic Fire Office Ltd (fire business)
1807 - 1894 West Of England Fire and Life Insurance Company
1886 - 1894 Straits Fire Insurance Company
- 1894 Provident Assurance and Trust Company of Port Elizabeth
- 1898 Arkansas Fire Insurance Company
- 1898 Cornwall Insurance Company of Launceston Tasmania
1886 - 1900 Palatine Insurance Company Ltd
1887 - 1900 Canada Accident Insurance Company (transferred from Palatine)
- 1900 Colonial Insurance Company Ltd of Cape Town (fire and marine business)
1890 - 1901 Globe Accident Insurance Company Ltd
1892 - 1901 Vehicular & General Insurance Company Ltd
1858 - 1903 Vulcan Boiler and General Insurance Company Ltd (workmen's compensation and general accident and fidelity business)
1834 - c1904 Greenwich of New York
1696 - 1905 Hand-in-Hand Fire & Life Insurance Society
1870 - 1906 Accident Insurance Company Ltd (No. 2)
1810 - 1906 American of Philadelphia
1714 - 1907 Union Assurance Society Ltd (No.1)
1895 - 1907 Scottish County and Mercantile Insurance Company Ltd
- 1907 La Aseguradora Española of Canary Islands
- 1908 Del Plata Insurance Company of Montevideo
1894 - 1910 Alliance Plate Glass Insurance Company of Bristol
1871 - 1910 Ocean Accident & Guarantee Corporation Ltd
1897 - 1910 Plate Glass Insurance Company of the City of London Ltd
1878 - 1912 Imperial Accident Insurance Company Ltd
- 1913 British Mercantile Masters, Officers & Engineers Certificate Protection Society Ltd
1896 - 1913 Midland Mutual Plate Glass Insurance Company of Dudley
1864 - 1913 California Insurance Company of San Francisco
1907 - 1913 Liverpool Victoria Insurance Corporation Ltd
1901 - 1914 King Insurance Company Ltd
1914 - 1914 Home & Foreign Reinsurance Company Ltd
1900 - 1915 St Albans Plate Glass Insurance Company Ltd
1853 - 1916 American Central Insurance Company of St Louis
1897 - 1917 National Insurance Company of Great Britain Ltd
- 1917 Birmingham Plate Glass Insurance Company
1823 - 1918 Edinburgh Assurance Company Ltd
- 1918 Manchester and London Underwriters of Deansgate Manchester
1873 - 1919 Jamaica Co-operative Fire and General Insurance Company Ltd
1871 - 1920 Australian Mutual Fire Insurance Society Ltd
1886 - 1924 West of Scotland Insurance Office Ltd
1894 - 1924 Scottish Reinsurance Company Ltd (transferred from West Scotland)
1904 - 1926 British General Insurance Company Ltd
1908 - 1926 British & European Insurance Company Ltd (transferred from British General)
1897 - 1926 Anglo Elementar Versicherungs-Aktiengesellschaft (55% held)
1910 - 1928 Travellers Insurance Association Ltd
c1899 - 1928 Brandförsäkrings Aktiebolaget Victoria of Stockholm
1863 - 1953 Guardian Plate Glass Insurance Company Ltd - (transferred from Union)
1958 Cuaco Securities Ltd
1809 - 1959 North British & Mercantile Insurance Company Ltd
1928 - 1960 Dominion Life Assurance Office of New Zealand Ltd
1880 - 1960 North West Fire Insurance Company (transferred from Union)
1960 Commercial Union Assurance Company of Australia Ltd
1960 Compagnie d'Assurance de l'Afrique Centrale SARL (90% held)(known as Centraf)
1961 Deutsch Elementar Versicherungs-Aktiengesellschaft (75% held)
1961 Compagnie d'Assurance de l'Afrique Centrale of Katanga
1963 Commercial Union (Second Leasing) Ltd
pre 1922 - 1963 Occidental Fire Insurance Company (transferred from North British)
1908 - 1964 Hibernian Fire & General Insurance Company Ltd
1965 Commercial Union Assurance Company of South Africa Ltd
1960 - 1966 Central London Estate Investments Ltd
1957 - 1966 Cornhill Investments Ltd
1958 - 1966 Crowtree Securities Ltd
1945 - 1966 Donegall Investment Company Ltd
1952 - 1966 Gordon-Curzon Properties Ltd
1927 - 1966 Forsikrings Aktieselskabet Vidar (transferred from Palatine)
1967 Commercial Union Assurance Company of New Zealand Ltd
1906 - 1967 Commercial Union (Unit Trusts) Ltd (transferred from Fine Art and General; 80% held)
1960 - by 1968 Union Assurance Society of Australia Ltd
c1960 - 1968 Northern & Employers Assurance Company Ltd
1859 - 1968 Ocean Marine Insurance Company Ltd (transferred from North British)
1890 - 1968 Fine Art and General Insurance Company Ltd (transferred from North British)
1840 - 1968 Railway Passengers Assurance Company (transferred from North British)
1836 - 1968 Northern Assurance Company Ltd
1880 - 1968 Employers' Liability Assurance Corporation Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1824 - 1968 Indemnity Marine Assurance Company Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1862 - 1968 London and Scottish Assurance Corporation Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1871 - 1968 Merchants' Marine Insurance Company Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
- 1968 National Guarantee and Suretyship Association Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1907 - 1968 Royal Scottish Insurance Company (transferred from the Northern)
1865 - 1968 White Cross Insurance Company Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1876 - 1968 Scottish Metropolitan Assurance Company Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1911 - 1968 Welsh Insurance Corporation Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1887 - 1968 London Amicable Assurance Society Ltd (transferred from the Northern)
1968 Commercial Union (Channel Islands) Ltd
1969 Commercial Union Corporation
1969 ECU Corporation
- 1969 ELAC Insurance Company Ltd
1970 Mercantile & Commercial Union Leasing Ltd (joint venture with the Mercantile Credit Company Ltd)
c1969 - by 1970 United Nigeria Life Insurance Company Ltd (93.5% held)
c1940 - by 1971 Commercial Union of Greece Insurance Company
- 1970 Southern's Properties Ltd
pre 1920 - 1970 La Aconcagua Compania Nacional de Seguros (transferred from the Northern)
- 1970 Antorcha Compania Argentina de Seguros
- 1971 Employers' Group Associates
- 1971 Employers Surplus Lines Insurance Company (ESLIC)
- 1971 Employers Life Insurance Company of American (ELICA)
- 1971 Egret Services Company Inc (ESC)
1971 Commercial Union Properties Belgium SA (later Arts Lux Real Estate SA)
1919 - 1971 World Auxiliary Insurance Corporation Ltd
1971 Commercial Union do Brasil Seguradora SA
1902 - 1971 Holloways' Properties Ltd
1966 - 1971 Holloway Sackville Properties Ltd
1830 - 1971 Sackville Estates Ltd
1887 - 1971 Les Provinces Réunies SA
1910 - 1971 West Bar (Leeds) Estate Company Ltd
- 1971 Planned Investments Corporation of Canada
1972 CACO Properties Ltd
1972 Roco Properties Ltd
1972 Hawksworth Development Company Ltd
1910 - 1972 Westminster and Kensington Freeholds Ltd (transferred from North British)
- 1972 Independancia Cia de Seguros Gerais of Brazil
1973 Commercial Union Fire, Marine and General Insurance Company Ltd of Harare, Zimbabwe
1972 - 1973 Weatherall Property and Services Ltd
1968 - 1973 Delta Lloyd Verzekeringsgroep NV
1973 Commercial Union Assurance Company of Rhodesia (Private) Ltd
1973 Commercial Assurance Company of Nigeria Ltd
- 1973 Radmill Properties Ltd
1973 CU Properties (Pty) Ltd
1973 Commercial Union Properties SARL, France
1973 Commercial Union Assurance (Cyprus) Ltd (60% held)
- 1973 Planned Investments Management Ltd of Canada
1973 W N Wrathall Company Ltd of Canada
1835 - 1974 Stanstead & Sherbrooke Insurance Company of Canada (transferred from Delta Lloyd)
- 1974 Pabema Montoyer SA
- 1974 Liberty Societa Ango-Italiana Rappresentanze Assicurative SRL (90% held)
1974 Commercial Union Assurance Svenska AB
1975 Commercial Union Risk Management Ltd
1975 Commercial Union Management Services (Bermuda) Ltd
- 1975 Tipperary Holdings Ltd
1975 Commercial Union of Canada Holdings Ltd
1975 Commercial Union Management Services (Guernsey) Ltd
1975 Commercial Union Management Services (Jersey) Ltd
1975 Commercial Union Assurance Company of New Zealand Ltd
1975 Commercial Union Reinsurance Company
- 1975 Sea West (Pty) Ltd
1976 Curepool Ltd
- 1976 Waterloo Ltd
1974 - 1977 Estates House Investment Trust Ltd
by 1974 - by 1979 J Eckman (France) SA (transferred from Union)
1974 - 1980 Estates House Securities Ltd (transferred from Westminster & Kensington Freeholds)
1980 - 1981 Earlshaw Ltd
1983 Commercial Union Life Assurance Company of Canada
- 1984 L'Epargne de France
1985 Commercial Union Holdings (NZ) Ltd
1985 Commercial Union Vida, Seguros y Reaseguros SA
1841 - 1986 Ashton Tod Maclaren
1986 - 1987 FMM Ltd (No. 1)
1984 - 1987 FMM Group Ltd
1985 - 1988 Quilter Goodison & Company
1973 - 1990 Globe Morley Ltd
- 1994 Compagnie Financiere du Groupe Victoire
1856 - 1994 L'Abeille
1980 - 1997 Houston General Insurance Company
1963 - 1997 Marlborough Underwriting Agency Ltd
1894 - 1997 York Insurance Company of Maine

* Please note the first date given is the date of the establishment of the company and the second date is the date the company was acquired or became a subsidiary. Where only one date is given the company was established as a subsidiary of the parent company. Where one date is preceded by a hyphen the date of the establishment of the company is not known.

Head office premises

Year Address
1861 - 1897 19-20 Cornhill, London (no. 20 purchased in 1864)
1865 - 1866 30 Gracechurch Street, London (temporary premises during rebuilding)
1897 - 1969 24-26 Cornhill, London (nos. 25, 26 and 27 purchased in 1893)
1927 - 1929 Adelaide House, London (temporary premises following collapse of Cornhill offices)
1969 - St Helen's, 1 Undershaft, London

Staff and officials

Secretary

Year Name
1861 - 1862 Mr Thomson
1862 - 1867 Henry Ghinn
1867 - 1874 Alexander Sutherland
1974 - 1881 Samuel Stanley Brown
1881 - 1888 George Lyon Bennett
1889 - 1921 Henry Mann
1921 - 1934 John Dewhirst
1934 - 1936 G Munro Kerr
1936 - 1959 R K Lochhead
1959 - 1967 Leonard Stanley Cooper
1968 - 1970 H T Frost
1970 - 1973 J Linbourne
1973 - 1978 C R Harris
1978 - 1990 at least G T Spratt

General manager

Year Name
1901 - 1920 E Roger Owen
1920 - 1922 T M E Armstrong
1922 - 1929 Joseph Powell (as joint manager from 1927)
1927 - 1938 Herbert Lewis (joint manager until 1929; "working chairman" with John Makins in tutelage from 1935)
1935 - 1958 Alfred John Makins (Sir John Makins from 1950)
1958 - 1972 Francis Edward Prescott Sandilands (title changed to chief general manager in 1962)
1972 - 1977 Norman Gordon Edward Dunlop
1977 - 1982 J F G Emms
1982 - 1985 C R Harris
1985 - 1990 at least A L Brend

Fire manager

Year Name
1861 - 1865 Henry Thomson
1865 - 1873 E Cozens Smith
1873 - 1877 David Christie
1877 - 1884 D Marshall Lang
1844 Philip Winsor
1885 - 1901 Evan Roger Owen
1901 - 1907 George C Morant
1908 - 1923 Position vacant
1923 - 1926 Herbert Lewis
1928 - 1930 Position vacant
1931 - 1935 Alfred John Makins

Life manager/Actuary

Year Name
1862 - 1877 William Pollard Pattison (actuary only)
1872 - 1901 Thomas Emley Young (manager only from 1872 to 1877)
1901 - 1903 A D L Turnbull
1904 - 1933 A G Allen (joint manager and actuary, 1906 to 1913 and 1928 to 1933)
1906 - 1913 Herbert Cecil Thiselton (joint manger and actuary)
1928 - 1938 H Brown (joint actuary until 1933)
1938 - 1943 George Green (joint manager and actuary from 1942)
1942 - 1965 N R Gatenby
1965 - 1977 K H Allen
1977 - 1990 at least J H Webb

Accident manager

Year Name
1901 - 1906 J N Lane
1906 - 1927 J Corbet McBride
1927 - 1930 H M Gates
1931 - 1938 William F Todd
1938 - 1941 at least Samuel Townsend
1945 - 1952 S J Davis

Marine underwriter

Year Name
1862 - 1898 James Carr Saunders
1898 - 1918 Richard T Jones
1918 - 1931 Augustus Leopold Page
1932 - 1933 A W Mudford
1933 - 1941 A L Kennedy
1941 - 1954 A Glanvill Smith
1954 - 1967 G W Hogsflesh
1968 E D Rainbow
1968 - 1972 L A Locke
1972 E D Rain

Directors (1861)

  • Henry W Peek
  • Henry Ghinn
  • E Hicks
  • M Joshua
  • William Leask
  • A Lusk
  • John R Thomson jnr
  • John Kemp Welch
  • Henry Trower
  • John Humphrey jnr
  • Edwin Fox
  • Nehemiah Griffiths
  • John Hodgson
  • Charles Curling
  • Jeremiah Coleman
  • W Lee
  • Samuel Hanson
  • G Harker
  • Frederick W Harris
  • Smith Harrison
  • F W Hains

Home agencies

  • Manchester (1861)
  • Bodmin (1861)
  • Rochester (1861)
  • Oxford (1861)
  • Derby (1861)
  • Stoney Stratford (1861)
  • Dover (1861)
  • Reading (1861)
  • Woolwich (1861)
  • Liverpool (1861)
  • Glasgow (1861)
  • Maidstone (1861)
  • Greenock (1861)
  • Islington (1861)
  • Bolton (1861)
  • Aberdeen (1862)
  • Exeter (1862)
  • South Shields (1862)
  • Stamford (1862)
  • Belfast Bridgend (1862)
  • Ashford (1862)
  • Sunderland (1862)
  • Edinburgh (1862)
  • Stockton on tees (1862)
  • Cardiff (1862)
  • Helingsburgh (1862)
  • Brampton (1862)
  • Plymouth (1862)
  • Dalmellington (1862)
  • Witney Oxon (1862)
  • Bletchingley (1862)
  • Bilston (1862)
  • Canterbury (1862)
  • Hastings (1862)
  • Inverness (1862)
  • Dundee (1862)
  • Perth (1862)
  • Fakenham (1862)
  • Alnwick (1862)
  • Rothesay (1862)
  • Hull (1862)
  • Topsham (1862)
  • Barnet (1862)
  • Workington (1862)
  • Chard (1862)
  • Devises (1862)
  • Newark (1862)
  • Stowmarket (1862)
  • Truro (1862)
  • Dartford (1862)
  • Fordingbridge (1862)
  • Dorking (1862)
  • Norwich (1863)
  • Leeds (1863)
  • Kettering (1863)
  • Winchester (1863)
  • Dewsbury (1863)
  • Bedale (1863)
  • Barnsley (1863)
  • Folkestone (1863)
  • Holbeach (1863)
  • Feltham (1863)
  • Louth (1863)
  • Spalding (1863)
  • Grantham (1863)
  • Alford (1863)
  • Gainsborough (1863)
  • Wandsworth (1863)
  • Staines (1863)

Home branches

  • Edinburgh (1864)
  • Manchester (by 1865)
  • Glasgow (1865)
  • Liverpool (1865)
  • West End, London (1868)
  • Belfast (by 1873)
  • Birmingham (by 1873)
  • Newcastle-on-Tyne (by 1873)
  • Leeds (by 1887)
  • Nottingham (by 1887)
  • Norwich (by 1887)
  • Bristol (by 1887)
  • Plymouth (1895)

Overseas agencies

  • Hamburg, Germany (1862)
  • Dublin, Ireland (1862)
  • Colombo, Sri Lanka (1862)
  • Cape Town, South Africa (1862)
  • Barbados (1862)
  • Bombay, India (1862)
  • Valparaiso, Chile (1862)
  • Netherlands (by 1863)
  • Singapore (1863)
  • Limerick, Skibbereen and Clonakilty, Ireland (1863)
  • Gothenburg, Sweden (1863)
  • Rangoon, Myanmar (Burma) (1863)
  • Calcutta, Madras and Calicut, India (1863)
  • Kingston, Jamaica (1863)
  • Manila, Philippines (1863)
  • Hong Kong (1863)
  • Montreal, Canada (1863)
  • Lima, Peru (1863)
  • Bremen, Germany (1863)
  • Japan (1863)
  • Pernambuco, Brazil (1863)
  • Melbourne and Sydney, Australia (1863)
  • Batavia, Indonesia (1863)
  • Port Elizabeth, South Africa (1863)
  • Buenos Aires, Argentina (1863)
  • Karachi, Pakistan (1863)
  • Shanghai, China (1863)
  • San Francisco, United States (1863)
  • Trinidad (1863)
  • St Johns, Newfoundland, Canada (1863)
  • Smyrna, Turkey (1863)
  • Demerara (1864)
  • St Croix (1864)
  • Natal, South Africa (1864)
  • St Thomas (1864)
  • New Zealand (1864)
  • Moulmein, Myanmar (1864)
  • Switzerland (1864)
  • Malaga, Spain (1864)
  • St Petersburg, Russia (1864)
  • Bahia, Brazil (by 1865)
  • Montevideo, Uruguay (1865)
  • Prussia (1865)
  • St Lucia (1865)
  • Quebec, Canada (1865)
  • Copenhagen, Denmark (by 1865)
  • Antwerp, Belgium (1865)
  • Adelaide, Australia (by 1865)
  • Yokohama, Japan (1866)
  • Hankow (Wuhan), China (1868)
  • Bordeaux, France (1868)
  • Nagasaki, Japan (1868)
  • New York, United States (by 1873)
  • Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (1874)
  • Winnipeg, Canada (1879)
  • Brisbane, Australia (by 1879)
  • Barcelona, Spain (1881)
  • Penang, Malaysia (1882)
  • Berlin, Germany (1884)
  • Prussia including Poland (1885)
  • Toronto, Canada (by 1887)
  • Bulgaria (1889)
  • Romania (by 1890)
  • Paris, France (1890)
  • Cape Town, South Africa (1890)
  • Formosa (Taiwan) (by 1891)
  • Wellington, New Zealand (by 1892)
  • Perth, Australia (by 1892)
  • Durban and Johannesburg, South Africa (1910)

Published history

A Century of Insurance - The Commercial Union Assurance Group, 1861 - 1961 by Edward Living. H F & G Witherby Ltd. London, 1961.

In the archives

The Aviva archive contains records relating to the running of Aviva International Insurance between 1861 and 2003. The collection includes annual reports and accounts, board of trade returns, board minutes, committee minutes, general minutes, deeds of settlement, acts of parliament, articles of association, acquisition agreements, letter books, policy registers, journals, ledgers, registers of securities, specimen policies, proposals, prospectuses, salary books, registers of agents, staff magazines, photographs, calendars and branded promotional material.

Other resources

Visit the Guildhall library for further resources relating to Aviva International Insurance.

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